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Avianca and Byogy create full biofuel replacement

Avianca Brasil and Byogy Renewables have unveiled an initiative to develop the world's first...
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Navy gets ready for two large pathways to alternative fuel

The Navy plans to create two new acquisition vehicles this year to ensure it has a consistent...
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EPA cuts 2013 cellulosic biofuel target

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has cut its 2013 target for the use of cellulosic...
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Biodiesel blending hinders non-subsidised fuel sales

Proposals to boost the mandatory amount of palm oil in biodiesel is thought to be hampering the...
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Volume 3, Issue 6

Feature: Hydrous ethanol: opportunities for supply and demand
Ethanol is produced and used in hydrous (wet) and anhydrous (dry) forms, the latter requiring an additional costly and energy consuming drying process. An opportunity therefore exists for both producers and end users in maximising the use of hydrous ethanol, this increasingly having stimulated R&D on both the supply and demand sides. Ethanol as a fuel today Hydrous ethanol is produced from distillation as an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and approximately 5% water. Due to the formation of an azeotrope, removal of the remaining water cannot be achieved by further simple distillation and an additional process is required, such as azeotropic distillation, adsorption or membrane separation. This additional process increases energy consumption, process time and both capital and operational expense. Hydrous ethanol is used as an engine fuel when unblended with hydrocarbons, although extensively only in Brazil for the passenger car fleet, and on a smaller scale in Sweden. When blended with petroleum, however, the complete miscibility observed between ethanol and water is disturbed and phase separation may occur. This requires ethanol blends to use anhydrous ethanol as a feedstock which consequently dominates fuel ethanol consumption.


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Volume 8, Issue 2

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