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Amyris’s farnesane receives regulatory approval in Brazil

Amyris, a global renewable products company, has received approval for its renewable jet fuel by...
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Think tank recommends 40 changes to ethanol mandate

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Volume 3, Issue 6

Feature: Hydrous ethanol: opportunities for supply and demand
Ethanol is produced and used in hydrous (wet) and anhydrous (dry) forms, the latter requiring an additional costly and energy consuming drying process. An opportunity therefore exists for both producers and end users in maximising the use of hydrous ethanol, this increasingly having stimulated R&D on both the supply and demand sides. Ethanol as a fuel today Hydrous ethanol is produced from distillation as an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and approximately 5% water. Due to the formation of an azeotrope, removal of the remaining water cannot be achieved by further simple distillation and an additional process is required, such as azeotropic distillation, adsorption or membrane separation. This additional process increases energy consumption, process time and both capital and operational expense. Hydrous ethanol is used as an engine fuel when unblended with hydrocarbons, although extensively only in Brazil for the passenger car fleet, and on a smaller scale in Sweden. When blended with petroleum, however, the complete miscibility observed between ethanol and water is disturbed and phase separation may occur. This requires ethanol blends to use anhydrous ethanol as a feedstock which consequently dominates fuel ethanol consumption.


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Volume 8, Issue 6

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