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Partnership to advance castor cultivation in Brazil

Agricultural research institute The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and...
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Air France-KLM to use biofuels in weekly flights

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Volume 3, Issue 6

Feature: The power of hydrous ethanol
Scientifi c research organisation TNO has just completed tests measuring the emissions and running capabilities of several low blend hydrous ethanol fuels. A representative modern car (a Ford Mondeo) was tested on three different fuels: petrol, a mixture of petrol and hydrous ethanol and a mixture of petrol and anhydrous ethanol. Two other petrol vehicles were also used to verify the emission behavior. Measurements were performed on a TNO chassis dynamometer. The exhaust gases were fi rst led into a dilution tunnel, which allows the exhaust gas to dilute in ambient air, just as it would in the exhaust pipe of a car on the road. Samples are taken from the dilution tunnel for analysis. The following components were measured: • NOx: nitrous oxide • CO: carbon monoxide • CO2: carbon dioxide • HC: hydrocarbons • PM1: Particulate Matter (particle size distribution). The ethanol blends tested in this programme contained approximately 19% ethanol and another 3.6% of other oxygenates. Furthermore the hydrous ethanol fuel contained 1.1% water.


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